Tag Archives: Erect-crested penguin

World Penguin Day – 25 April 2017


In a few days it’s World Penguin Day! Today (22nd April) is Earth Day – so I’ve decided to post my penguin post a few days early… Penguins are distributed across the Earth, and come in various sizes and appearances. Penguins are flightless, aquatic birds (of varying sizes and habitats).

There are 17 species of penguin worldwide:

  1. Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae)
    This mid-sized penguin, of the Pygoscelis genus, weighs on average 4.5-5 kg (10-11 lbs) and is only 68-70 cm (27-27.5 “) in height. Adélie penguins live on the Antarctic continent and many surrounding islands. They can dive up to 175 m (575 ft) below the surface and can hold their breath under water for up to 6 minutes, but usually only dive for 2-3 minutes a time.
    Average wild lifespan: 20 years.
  2. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus)
    Also known as “Jackass penguin” due to their donkey-like vocalisations. Populations of this species are distributed across Namibia and South Africa. They can dive up to 99.9 m (328 ft), and hold their breath for over 2 minutes. On average, they grow to a height of 60 cm (2 ft / 24″) and weigh 2.3-4 kg (5.25-9 lbs).
    Average wild lifespan: 12 years.
  3. Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica)
    These little penguins are the smallest of the three species in the Pygoscelis genus, the Chinstrap weighs in at 3-6 kg (7-13 lbs) and has an average height of 71-76 cm (28-30″). Ranging across a variety of locations (Antarctica, Argentina, Bouvet Island, Chile, the Falkland Islands, the French Southern Territories, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands); Chinstrap penguins do not often dive deeper than approximately 70 m (200 ft), for no longer than 1 minute at a time.
    Average wild lifespan: 15-20 years.
  4. Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri)
    The largest and heaviest of all penguin species; the Emperor penguin weighs on average 23 kg (50.7 lbs) and reaches 1.1-1.3 m (3.6-4.2 ft) in height. Native to Antarctica, these penguins can dive up to 565 m (1,850 ft) below the surface and can hold their breath under water for up to 20 minutes.
    Average wild lifespan: 20 years.
  5. Erect-crested penguins (Eudyptes sclateri)
    Belonging to the Eudyptes Genus (crested penguins) the Erect-crested penguin is found  on the Bounty island and the Antipodes island of New Zealand. They tend to feed in the shallows, and therefore tend to keep to short, shallow dives; however, to forage for food when scarce they can dive deep. Weighing 2.5-6 kg (5.5-13.2 lbs) and growing to 65-60 cm (25.5-27.5″).
    Average wild lifespan: 15-20 years.
  6. Fiordland penguins (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus)
    Also belonging to the Eudyptes Genus (crested penguins) the Fiordland penguins can be found on the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand. Not a lot has been recorded about the marine ecology of the Fiordland, however studies show that they tend to take short, shallow dives. This species grows to a height of 55-60 cm (1.8-2 ft / 22-23.6″) and usually weigh 4 kg (8.8 lbs).
    Average wild lifespan: 10-20 years.
  7. Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus)
    The mid-sized Galapagos penguin weighs in at 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs) and reach 49 cm (19.2″) in height. This is the only penguin species found in the Galápagos (hence the name), and north of the equator; however most are found among the western islands of Fernandina and Isabela. Diving to depths of 7.9-54.8 m (26-180 ft), with dives lasting an average of 3+ minutes.
    Average wild lifespan: 9.5 years.
  8. Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua)
    Third largest of all penguin species (and largest of the Pygoscelis genus), Gentoos weigh 5-8.5 kg (11-19 lbs) and reach 51-90 cm (20-35″) in height. They range across many sub antarctic islands, and dive for 7 minutes at a time (on average) at depths of up to 200 m (665 ft).
    Average wild lifespan: 15 years.
  9. Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)
    This med-size penguin stands at an average height of 70 cm (27.5″) tall, and weighs  4 kg (8.8 lbs) on average. The Humboldt penguin is native to the Peruvian and Chilean coasts; holding their breath underwater for an average of 2 minutes, diving to depths of 15 m (49.2 ft).
    Average wild lifespan: 15-20 years.
  10. King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus )
    The second largest and second heaviest of all penguin species, not too dissimilar in appearance to the Emperor; the King penguin weighs in at 15 kg (33 lbs) and reach just under 1 m in height (0.9 m / 3.1 ft). They inhabit a variety of sub antarctic islands, and usually dive to 100 m (330 ft) for feeding, but have been recorded at diving over 500 m (1,600 ft). King penguins can hold their breath under water for 20 minutes.
    Average wild lifespan: 15-20 years.
  11. Little (Blue) penguins (Eudyptula minor)
    This species is the smallest penguin species in the world! Standing at only 30-33 cm (11.8-13″) tall, and weighing in at 1.5 kg (3.3 lbs). They can be found around New Zealand and Southern Australia; the deepest recorded dive is 72 m (236 ft), however on average dive only 5-20 m (16.4-65.6 ft) – holding their breath for approximately 2 minutes at a time before surfacing for air.
    Average wild lifespan: 6 years.
  12. Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus)
    One of the larger species of the Eudyptes Genus (crested penguins), the Macaroni penguin is distributed across Antarctic Peninsula, Bouvet, Prince Edward islands, Heard Island, the Falkland islands, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Chile, Argentina, South Georgia, South Sandwich, South Orkneys, and South Shetlands. They dive for an average of 2-3 minutes at a time, usually between 15-70 m (49.3- 229.6 ft) but can reach depths of 100 m (330 ft). On average, Macaroni penguins grow to 70 cm (27.5″) and weigh 5.5 kg (12.1 lbs).
    Average wild lifespan: 15 years.
  13. Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus)
    The Magellanic penguin weighs 60-75 cm (23.6-29.5″) and is 2.5-6.5 kg (5.5-13.3 lbs) in height. Studies show that this species dives anywhere between 6-90 m (19.6-295.2 ft); 66.5-68 m (218-223 ft) on average. Distributed across the coasts of Argentina, southern Chile, and the Falkland Islands.
    Average wild lifespan: 25+ years.
  14. Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome)
    Another penguin of the Eudyptes Genus (crested penguins) this little species weighs just 2.3-3 kg (5-6.6 lbs), and is on average 51 cm (20″) in height. They can dive up to 100 m (330 ft), however tend to stick to the shallows; capable of holding their breath for approximately 6-10 minutes.
    Northern Rockhopper penguins are mostly found in the Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha, and throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Southern Rockhopper penguins are found in Southern Chile, the Falkland Islands, Auckland Islands, Isla Noir and Isla de los Estados, Prince Edward Islands, Diego Ramirez Islands, Campbell Island, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, Antipodes, and Heard Island.
    Average wild lifespan: 10 years.
  15. Royal penguins (Eudyptes schlegeli)
    Also belonging to the Eudyptes Genus (crested penguins), are 70 cm (27.5″) in height and 4-8 kg (8.8-17.6 lbs) in weight, on average. Found on the sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island and surrounding islands; diving between 50-150 m (164-492 ft) for food, for approximately 5-10 minutes.
    Average wild lifespan: 15-20 years.
  16. Snares penguins (Eudyptes robustus)
    The final species of the Eudyptes Genus (crested penguins), this species stands at 55-70 cm (21.5-27.5″) in height, and weighs 3-4 kg (6.5-8.8 lbs). They usually take short dives at depths of between 20-40 m (65.6-131.2 ft); however, for longer foraging trips, can reach depths of 120 m (393.7 ft). They are found off the coast of New Zealand, and The Snares islands (hence their name).
    Average wild lifespan: 15-20 years.
  17. Yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes)
    The Yellow-eyes penguin population is spread across Campbell Island, Stewart Island, Auckland Island, South Island of New Zealand, and the Otago Peninsula. They dive between 39.9-120 m (131-394 ft) for an average of 3.5 minutes. This species grows to a height of 65-73.6 cm (2.1-2.4 ft / 25.5-29″) and usually weigh 4.3-8.5 kg (9.5-18.75 lbs).
    Average wild lifespan: 10 years.

     


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